What compound inside biocoagulants/bioflocculants is contributing the most to the coagulation and flocculation processes?

Setyo Budi Kurniawan, Muhammad Fauzul Imron, Che Engku Noramalina Che Engku Chik, Amina Adedoja Owodunni, Azmi Ahmad, Mohammad Mohammad Alnawajha, Nurul Farhana Mohd Rahim, Nor Sakinah Mohd Said, Siti Rozaimah Sheikh Abdullah, Nor Azman Kasan, Suzylawati Ismail, Ahmad Razi Othman, Hassimi Abu Hasan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

77 Citations (Scopus)


Biocoagulants and bioflocculants are alternative items that can be used to substitute the utilization of common-chemical coagulants and flocculants. Biocoagulants/bioflocculants can be extracted from animals, microorganisms, and plants. Moreover, biocoagulants/bioflocculants have specific characteristics that contribute to the coagulation and flocculation processes. The active compounds inside biocoagulants/bioflocculants vary and correspond to the specific working mechanisms, including charge neutralization, sweep coagulation, adsorption, bridging, and patch flocculation. This review paper summarizes the characteristics of biocoagulants/bioflocculants from different sources and its performance in treating various pollutants. Furthermore, this paper discusses the most contributing compounds and functional groups of biocoagulants/bioflocculants that can be related to their working mechanisms. Several functional groups and compounds in biocoagulants/bioflocculants are highlighted in this review article, as well as the correlation between the highlighted groups/compounds to the aforementioned coagulation-flocculation mechanisms. In addition, current knowledge gaps in the study of biocoagulants/bioflocculants and future approaches that may serve as research directions are also emphasized. This review article is expected to shed information on the characteristics of biocoagulants/bioflocculants, which may then become a focus in the optimization to obtain higher performance in future application of coagulation-flocculation processes.

Original languageEnglish
Article number150902
JournalScience of the Total Environment
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2022


  • Mechanism
  • Natural coagulant
  • Pollutant removal
  • Wastewater treatment
  • Water treatment


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