Vitamin D and Wound Recovery: Illuminating the Path to Enhanced Healing in Diabetic Patients

Aditya Chrisdianto, Prananda Surya Airlangga, Belindo Wirabuana, Regina Purnama Dewi Iskandar

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Wound healing is a highly coordinated biological event as a response to injured skin. It commonly takes 14 days for a wound to be completely healed. However, the duration of wound healing may vary between individuals due to certain factors. One major factor that delays the wound-healing process is Diabetes Mellitus. Delayed wound healing with poor prognosis commonly occurs in diabetic patients. Chronic hyperglycemia may affect macrophage polarisation, which is essential in the wound healing mechanism. The macrophage polarisation enables the pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype to switch to the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype. Thus, pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype prevails persistently in diabetic wounds, while the anti-inflammatory M2 phenotype remains deficient. It results in significantly elevated levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines triggered by the M1 phenotype. Prolonged wound healing times increase the risk of infection, which can lead to more severe complications. Vitamin D is widely recognized for its essential role in regulating calcium levels and supporting bone health, as well as its positive effects on the immune system. This vitamin has the potential to skew macrophages towards the M2 phenotype and promote a regenerative and anti-inflammatory environment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)485-491
Number of pages7
JournalPharmacognosy Journal
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2024


  • Diabetes Mellitus
  • Macrophage Polarisation
  • Vitamin D
  • Wound Healing


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