Vanadia as an electron-hole recombination inhibitor on fibrous silica-titania for selective hole oxidation of ciprofloxacin and Congo red photodegradation

N. S. Hassan, A. A. Jalil, I. C.M. Fei, M. T.A. Razak, N. F. Khusnun, M. B. Bahari, Y. I. Riwayati, S. Suprapto, D. Prasetyoko, M. L. Firmansyah, N. F.M. Salleh, Saravanan Rajendran

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

6 Citations (Scopus)


Vanadia (V2O5)-incorporated fibrous silica-titania (V/FST) catalysts, which were successfully synthesized using a hydrothermal method followed by the impregnation of V2O5. The catalysts were then characterized using numerous techniques, including X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, nitrogen adsorption–desorption analyses, ultraviolet–visible diffuse reflectance spectroscopy, Fourier-transform infrared, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and photoluminescence (PL) analyses. The study found that varying the amount of V2O5 (1–10 wt%) had a significant impact on the physicochemical properties of the FST, which in turn improved the photodegradation efficiency of two organic compounds, ciprofloxacin (CIP) and congo red (CR). 5V/FST demonstrated the best performance in degrading 10 mg L−1 of CIP (83%) and CR (100%) at pH 3 using 0.375 g L−1 catalyst under visible light irradiation within 180 min. The highest photoactivity of 5V/FST is mainly due to higher crystallinity and the highest number of V2O5-FST interactions. Furthermore, as demonstrated by PL analysis, the 5V/FST catalyst has the most significant impact on interfacial charge transfer and reduces electron-hole recombination. The photodegradation of both contaminants follows the Langmuir-Hinshelwood pseudo-first-order model, according to the kinetic study. The scavenger investigation demonstrated that hydroxyl radicals and holes dominated species in the system, indicating that the catalyst effectively generated reactive species for pollutant degradation. A possible mechanism was also identified for FST and 5V/FST. Interestingly, V2O5 acts as an electron-hole recombination inhibitor on FST for selective hole oxidation of ciprofloxacin and congo red photodegradation. Finally, the degradation efficiency of the catalyst remained relatively stable even after five cyclic experiments, indicating its potential for long-term use in environmental remediation.

Original languageEnglish
Article number139502
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023


  • Ciprofloxacin and Congo red
  • Electron-hole recombination
  • Fibrous silica-titania
  • Hole oxidation
  • Inhibitor
  • Vanadia


Dive into the research topics of 'Vanadia as an electron-hole recombination inhibitor on fibrous silica-titania for selective hole oxidation of ciprofloxacin and Congo red photodegradation'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this