Validation of the General Evaluation Scale for Measuring Ethnic and Religious Prejudice in an Indonesian Sample

Marselius Sampe Tondok, Suryanto Suryanto, Rahkman Ardi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


The General Evaluation Scale (GES) has been widely employed to assess attitudes toward outgroups, including ethnic and religious prejudice. However, validation within the Indonesian context has not been conducted. Using two studies (Study 1, religious prejudice; Study 2, ethnic prejudice), we provide evidence of psychometric properties of a six-item GES for measuring ethnic and religious prejudice based on factor structure, composite reliability, and convergent validity in Indonesia. The results demonstrate an acceptable model fit for a single-factor structure characterized by high internal consistency (McDonald’s Omega/ω = 0.93 in Study 1, ω = 0.94 in Study 2). Furthermore, the scale exhibits solid convergent validity, as evidenced by its correlations with the blatant and subtle prejudice scale (r = −0.44 in Study 1, r = −0.74 in Study 2) and the feeling thermometer scale (r = 0.60 in Study 1, r = 0.78 in Study 2). In summary, this research unequivocally establishes the GES as a valuable instrument for measuring religious and ethnic prejudice in the Indonesian context, underpinned by its robust psychometric properties. Nevertheless, it underscores the need for further investigations with diverse samples and varying social contexts to bolster the scale’s reliability and applicability.

Original languageEnglish
Article number21
JournalSocial Sciences
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024


  • ethnic prejudice
  • religious prejudice
  • the general evaluation scale
  • validation


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