Objective: The coverage of postnatal care (PNC) is among the lowest globally when compared with other maternal and child interventions. This study aims to assess PNC utilisation in Indonesia and its association with women’s empowerment indicators to provide evidence for the need for policy change. Methods: Data from the 2017 Indonesian Demographic Health Surveys was analyzed for any use of PNC, early first PNC (within 2 days of birth) and PNC after discharge for newborns. Women’s empowerment factors were calculated using a principal component analysis of 17 indicators. The association between women’s empowerment factors and PNC was assessed using logistic regression adjusted for covariates and complex survey design. Results: The prevalence of any PNC by skilled professionals in Indonesia was high but PNC after discharge was very low. Labor-force participation and women’s knowledge level were associated with any PNC, but the association between women’s knowledge level and any PNC was modified by place of birth. Disagreement towards justification of wife beating and women’s knowledge level were associated with early PNC but the association was modified by place of birth. Decision-making power was also associated with early PNC but modified by infant’s gender. Disagreement towards justification of wife beating was negatively associated with PNC after discharge, but the association between decision-making power and PNC after discharge was modified by the infant’s size at birth. Conclusions for Practice: PNC coverage after discharge in Indonesia needs improvement. Women’s empowerment indicators need to be addressed in improving PNC coverage.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)545-555
Number of pages11
JournalMaternal and Child Health Journal
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - Mar 2022


  • Decision making power
  • Domestic violence
  • Female labor force participation
  • Knowledge
  • Newborn postnatal care
  • Women’s empowerment


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