Nanobiotechnology has tremendous potential to support eco-friendly systems and industrial sustainability through the production of metal nanoparticles using biological sources. For chemical methods are supposed highly toxic reagents, carcinogenic solvent, and environmental pollution. On the other hand, some of physical methods are require high energy consumption and expensive equipment. Moreover, both methods also resulted difficulties in controlling crystal growth and then triggered particle aggregation due to need additional steps by adding stabilizer. Metal nanoparticles are utilized in biosensing, medical, or pharmaceutical applications. Various types of marine organisms, including bacteria, fungi, vertebrates, invertebrates, and diverse algae, possess the ability to withstand environmental pressure and the capability to grow in the presence of high metal concentrations to synthesize metal nanoparticles. Furthermore, from the marine organisms are a source of active compound as reducing and stabilizing agents present in the biological extract. Concerning the biosynthesis of nanoparticles, gold (Au) and silver (Ag) nanoparticles have been most extensively investigated. Au and Ag nanoparticles have been synthesized using marine organisms with various sizes and shapes such as spherical, triangular, cubical, and polygonal. These nanoparticles are primarily applied in the medical field owing to their antibacterial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory properties. This review provides a comprehensive description of the biosynthesis of Au and Ag nanoparticles using marine organisms, including the method, mechanism of action, and their applications.
- Enviromentally sound technologies
- Gold nanoparticles
- Green synthesis
- Marine resources
- Silver nanoparticles