Ultrasound-guided third occipital nerve (TON) blocks

Hanik Badriyah Hidayati, Vania Ayu Puspamaniar, Alexander Tikara Sugondo, Fajar Sena Firdausa

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Peripheral nerve blocks, including occipital nerve blocks (ONBs), have received increased attention and support as pain management tools during the previous few decades. Researchers have documented usefulness of ONBs particularly for acute headache management in the outpatient setting. The blocks also play a role in other healthcare settings, such as in the emergency department. The potential role of ONBs for the management of acute headache episodes in primary and emergency care settings is not yet fully practiced. In this paper, we will review block techniques of third occipital nerve (TON): indication, medication selection, complications and measures that can help improve safety in this procedure of headache management.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)166-170
Number of pages5
JournalAnaesthesia, Pain and Intensive Care
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 1 Feb 2024


  • Analgesia
  • Headache
  • Occipital Nerve Block
  • Occipital Neuralgia
  • Regional
  • Third Occipital Nerve
  • Ultrasound-Guide


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