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Background: COVID-19 cases surge, it has a crucial impact on healthcare systems, with rapidly increasing demand for healthcare resources in hospitals and intensive care units (ICUs) in Indonesia and worldwide. It is necessary to quantify the extent to which the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on the hospital admissions, and clinical and financial outcomes of patients with non-COVID-19 respiratory symptoms. Objective: To determine whether the COVID-19 pandemic changed the hospitalisation of child and adult patients with non-COVID-19 respiratory conditions and whether these changes affected the patient's disease condition, clinical outcomes, and hospital finances. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was conducted from May 1, 2018 (before the COVID-19 pandemic) until December 31, 2021. Total sampling was done to compare hospital admission of patients with non-COVID-19 respiratory symptoms before versus during the COVID-19 pandemic. The results were analyzed using SPSS 26.0 and SmartPLS.v.3.2.9. Results: There was a reduction in hospitalisations for respiratory disorders unrelated to COVID-19 during the pandemic by 55.3% in children and 47.8% in adult patients. During the pandemic, the average hospital revenue per patient of child and adult patients increased significantly, but the profit per patient decreased. Pathway analysis showed that in children, the COVID-19 Pandemic changed disease severity and complexity (β = 0.132, P < 0.001), as well as clinical outcomes (β = 0.029, P < 0.05). In adults, the COVID-19 pandemic improves disease severity and complexity (β = -0.020, P < 0.001), as well as clinical outcomes (β = −0.013, P < 0.001). COVID-19 pandemic increases care charges (in children with β = 0.135, P < 0.001; and in the adult patients with β = 0.110, P < 0.001), worsens hospital financial outcomes relating to child (β = −0.093, P < 0.001) and adult patient (β = −0.073, P < 0.001). In adult patients, seasonal variations moderate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on improving disease conditions (β = −0.032, P=<0.001). The child structural model effectively predicted clinical outcomes (Q2 = 0.215) and financial outcomes (Q2 = 0.462). The adult structural model effectively predicted clinical outcomes (Q2 = 0.06) and financial outcomes (Q2 = 0.472). Conclusion: The conclusions are that the number of non-COVID respiratory patients decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic (47.8% in adult patients, 55.3% in child patients). Disease severity and complexity increased in child patients but decreased in adult patient. Costs of care and insurance payments increased. Since the insurance payments did not increase as much as the cost of care, hospital profit decreased.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere15122
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2023


  • Adult patients
  • COVID-19 pandemic
  • Child patients
  • Clinical outcome
  • Costs of care
  • Disease condition
  • Financial outcome
  • Respiratory symptoms


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