Translation, validation, and reliability of the Indonesian version of the Assessment of Quality of Life-4 Dimensions (AQoL-4D)

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Background: The Assessment of Quality of Life-4 Dimensions (AQoL-4D) instrument is a general instrument used to measure quality of life; it was developed by Australian researchers using psychometric techniques. AQoL-4D measures four dimensions: Independent living, relationships, senses, and mental health, where the health dimension represents the domain of health-related quality of life. Each dimension has three questions, so in total AQoL-4D has 12 questions. Objective: To translate, validate and test the reliability of the Indonesian version of the AQoL-4D instrument. Method: The process of translating and adopting AQoL-4D from English to Indonesian is divided into four stages: Forward translation, expert panel, backward translation, cognitive interviewing and pre-testing. The visual validity test was carried out during the cognitive interviewing and pre-testing stages. The final version of the Indonesian AQoL-4D was tested for construct validity and reliability by comparing the product-moment correlation coefficient, the value of r-count, with the value of r-table (α; df). Furthermore, the instrument was tested for reliability using an internal consistency test with alpha coefficients (Cronbach's Alpha). Result: Respondents came from several health centers in Surabaya and totaled to 142 respondents. The results of the construct validity test obtained an r-count ranging from 0.347 to 0.595. The reliability test results showed that the total value of Cronbach's alpha was 0.669. Conclusion: The Indonesian version of AQoL-4D has moderate validity and reliability.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)9-13
Number of pages5
JournalPharmacy Education
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 15 May 2023


  • AQoL-4D
  • Indonesia
  • Mental health
  • Reliability
  • Validity


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