Tracking lethal threat: in-depth review of rabies

Aswin Rafif Khairullah, Shendy Canadya Kurniawan, Abdullah Hasib, Otto Sahat Martua Silaen, Agus Widodo, Mustofa Helmi Effendi, Sancaka Chasyer Ramandinianto, Ikechukwu Benjamin Moses, Katty Hendriana Priscilia Riwu, Sheila Marty Yanestria

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


An infectious disease known as rabies (family Rhabdoviridae, genus Lyssavirus) causes severe damage to mammals’ central nervous systems (CNS). This illness has been around for a very long time. The majority of human cases of rabies take place in underdeveloped regions of Africa and Asia. Following viral transmission, the Rhabdovirus enters the peripheral nervous system and proceeds to the CNS, where it targets the encephalon and produces encephalomyelitis. Postbite prophylaxis requires laboratory confirmation of rabies in both people and animals. All warm-blooded animals can transmit the Lyssavirus infection, while the virus can also develop in the cells of cold-blooded animals. In the 21st century, more than 3 billion people are in danger of contracting the rabies virus in more than 100 different nations, resulting in an annual death toll of 50,000–59,000. There are three important elements in handling rabies disease in post exposure prophylaxis (PEP), namely wound care, administration of anti-rabies serum, and anti-rabies vaccine. Social costs include death, lost productivity as a result of early death, illness as a result of vaccination side effects, and the psychological toll that exposure to these deadly diseases has on people. Humans are most frequently exposed to canine rabies, especially youngsters and the poor, and there are few resources available to treat or prevent exposure, making prevention of human rabies challenging.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1385-1399
Number of pages15
JournalOpen Veterinary Journal
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Bite
  • Infectious disease
  • Public health
  • Rabies
  • Virus


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