Background: The protozoan Toxoplasma gondii is the source of zoonosis toxoplasmosis and causes public health problems throughout the world. Environmental contamination by oocysts excreted by cats as definitive hosts affects the spread of this disease. Wild rats as rodents can be used as an indicator of environmental contamination by oocysts, considering that rats have a habit of living in dirty environments and can be infected by oocysts from the environment. Aim: This study aims to detect toxoplasmosis from tissue cysts and serological tests in wild rats as an indicator of environmental contamination in Surabaya. Methods: A total of 100 wild rats collected from Surabaya were collected in five areas (West, East, Central, North, and South of Surabaya) obtained from three trapping locations: housing, dense settlements, and markets. All samples were examined microscopically for parasitological tests through the brain tissue samples, and the serum was examined using the toxoplasma modified agglutination test to detect the presence of IgG and Immunoglobulin M (IgM). Results: This research used 100 wild rat samples, 77 Rattus tanezumi and 33 Rattus norvegicus, with evidence of 31% in serology and active infection with 19% tissue cyst. The results showed that the seroprevalence of T. gondii in wild rats was 31% (30% for IgG and 1% for IgM). Tissue cysts in the rat brain samples tested were 19% (19/100). The IgG prevalence rate in female rats was 25% (8/32), while for males, it was 32.3% (22/68). The highest seropositive IgG from densely populated settlements was 50%, markets were 25.8%, and housing was 12.1%. The highest seropositive IgM from densely populated settlements was 2.8%. Population density and the presence of cats are factors supporting the high seropositive rate at the trapping location. Conclusion: This study revealed that there has been toxoplasmosis contamination in Surabaya with evidence of 31% in serology and active infection with 19% tissue cyst. It is necessary for controlling with surveillance in cats to prevent transmission in humans.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1443-1450
Number of pages8
JournalOpen Veterinary Journal
Issue number11
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Public health
  • Tissue cyst
  • ToMAT
  • Toxoplasmosis
  • Wild rats


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