Three-dimensional volume rendering ultrasound for assessing placenta accreta spectrum severity and discriminating it from simple scar dehiscence

Theophilus K. Adu-Bredu, Robert Ridwan, Aditiawarman Aditiawarman, Grace Ariani, Sally L. Collins, Rozi A. Aryananda

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Prenatal ultrasound discrimination between placenta accreta spectrum and scar dehiscence with underlying nonadherent placenta is challenging both prenatally and intraoperatively, which often leads to overtreatment. In addition, accurate prenatal prediction of surgical difficulty and morbidity in placenta accreta spectrum is difficult, which precludes appropriate multidisciplinary planning. The advent of advanced 3-dimensional volume rendering and contrast enhancement techniques in modern ultrasound systems provides a comprehensive prenatal assessment, revealing details that are not discernible in traditional 2-dimensional imaging. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate the use of 3-dimensional volume rendering ultrasound techniques in determining the severity of placenta accreta spectrum and distinguishing between placenta accreta spectrum and scar dehiscence with underlying nonadherent placenta. STUDY DESIGN: A prospective, cohort study was conducted between July 2022 and July 2023 in the fetal medicine unit of Dr Soetomo Academic General Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia. All pregnant individuals with anterior low-lying placenta or placenta previa with a previous caesarean section who were referred with suspicion of placenta accreta spectrum were consented and screened using the standardised 2-dimensional and Doppler ultrasound imaging. Additional 3-dimensional volumes were obtained from the sagittal section of the uterus with a filled urinary bladder. These were analyzed by rotating the region of interest to be perpendicular to the uterovesical interface. The primary outcomes were the clinical and histologic severity in the cases of placenta accreta spectrum and correct diagnosis of dehiscence with nonadherent placenta underneath. The strength of association between ultrasound and clinical outcomes was determined. Multivariate logistic regression analyses and diagnostic testing of accuracy were used to analyze the data. RESULTS: A total of 70 patients (56 with placenta accreta spectrum and 14 with scar dehiscence) were included in the analysis. Multivariate logistic regression of all 2-dimensional and 3-dimensional signs revealed the 3-dimensional loss of clear zone (P<.001) and the presence of bridging vessels on 2-dimensional Doppler ultrasound (P=.027) as excellent predictors in differentiating scar dehiscence and placenta accreta spectrum. The 3-dimensional loss of clear zone demonstrated a high diagnostic accuracy with an area under the curve of 0.911 (95% confidence interval, 0.819–1.002), with a sensitivity of 89.3% (95% confidence interval, 78.1–95.97%) and specificity of 92.9% (95% confidence interval, 66.1–99.8%). The presence of bridging vessels on 2-dimensional Doppler demonstrated an area under the curve of 0.848 (95% confidence interval, 0.714–0.982) with a sensitivity of 91.1% (95% confidence interval, 80.4–97.0%) and specificity of 78.6% (95% confidence interval, 49.2–95.3%). A subgroup analysis among the placenta accreta spectrum group revealed that the presence of a 3-dimensional disrupted bladder serosa with obliteration of the vesicouterine space was associated with vesicouterine adherence (P<.001). CONCLUSION: Three-dimensional volume rendering ultrasound is a promising tool for effective discrimination between scar dehiscence with underlying nonadherent placenta and placenta accreta spectrum. It also shows potential in predicting the clinical severity with urinary bladder involvement in cases of placenta accreta spectrum.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101321
JournalAmerican Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology MFM
Volume6
Issue number4
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Apr 2024
Externally publishedYes

Keywords

  • 3D ultrasound
  • PAS disorders
  • bladder injury
  • cesarean hysterectomy
  • crystal vue
  • placenta accreta
  • placenta previa
  • silhouette
  • tramline sign

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