Three clinical signs to distinguish allergies or infections in allergic children with airway symptoms

Rizka Yulianti, Anang Endaryanto, Zahrah Hikmah, Retno Asih Setyoningrum, Kazufumi Shimizu

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Respiratory disorders are common in children. Symptoms of allergy and airway infection overlap. Simple methods are needed to determine the cause of infection or allergen exposure. Objectives: To determine the diagnostic value of 3 clinical signs (fever, nasal secretions, and symptom continuation) as a differentiator for infection or allergen exposure in allergic patients who experience airway symptoms. Method: In this study patients diagnosed with allergies due to food elimination and provocation test, and skin prick test in the Paediatric Allergy Outpatient Clinic Dr Soetomo General Hospital, Surabaya, Indonesia, who experienced airway symptoms, were enrolled. Patients were determined to have 3 clinical signs, by anamnesis and physical examination, and laboratory evaluation (complete blood count, C-reactive protein, and nasopharyngeal swab polymerase chain reaction) as infection markers. Analysis was done using the McNemar and Kappa tests (p <0.05; 95% CI). Results: A total of 60 patients (60% male) met the inclusion criteria. From laboratory tests, the number of patients who showed infection and non-infection was 26 (43.4%) and 34 (56.6%), respectively. There were 28 (82.4%) patients who met 3 clinical signs of allergy from the results of non-infectious laboratory markers. Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, positive likelihood ratio and negative likelihood ratio were 82.3%, 80.7%, 84.8%, 77.7%, 4.24 and 0. 22 respectively.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)542-546
Number of pages5
JournalSri Lanka Journal of Child Health
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Allergic children
  • Respiratory infections
  • Sensitivity
  • Specificity
  • Three distinguishing clinical signs


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