Introduction: Prophylactic antibiotics in urological procedures are essential to prevent postoperative infections. A different approach in selecting antibiotic prophylaxis according to the type of procedure is needed. Methodology: A retrospective study was carried out at an academic hospital in Surabaya, Indonesia, by collecting medical records of patients who underwent urologic procedures within 2019- 2020, including microbiological data. Result: One hundred seventy-nine urological procedures were assessed. Antibiotic prophylaxis was administered in the clean-contaminated and clean procedures (93.2% and 6.8%, respectively). Ceftriaxone was commonly used (69.3%), single-dose, one day before the surgery. Gram-negative bacteria were widely found in the urinary culture of patients (75.2%). E. coli, K. pneumoniae, and P. aeruginosa were dominating with low susceptibility to cephalosporins. ESBL-producing bacteria were E. coli (64%) and K. pneumoniae (89%). Conclusions: The 3rd generation cephalosporins (ceftriaxone) are mostly used in urological procedures despite the low susceptibility against this antibiotic in cultured E coli, P. aeruginosa, and K. pneumonia. The aminoglycosides have relatively good activity and have been suggested in several guidelines for urologic procedures, such as prostate and urinary tract stone procedures. It is crucial to consider the incision site, type of procedure, and bacterial profile in the hospital to propose antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)874-880
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Infection in Developing Countries
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023


  • antibiotic prophylaxis
  • infection
  • urologic procedure


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