Background: Glaucoma is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by glaucomatous optic neuropathy, including loss of retinal ganglion cells and axons. Optic neuropathy causes progressive vision loss and is managed by reducing intraocular pressure. However, even when the intraocular pressure has dropped to normal, the damage to the retinal ganglion cells may linger in certain situations. Thus, commence investigations on natural sources such as neuroprotection to prevent the loss of retinal ganglion cells. Methods: This literature review compiles and elaborates on previous studies to support future experimental studies that will be conducted to comprehend the effect of intravitreal Resveratrol as a glaucoma treatment to prevent the loss of retinal ganglion cells. Results: Resveratrol is a naturally occurring phenol and phytoalexin detected in the skins of grapes and berries like raspberries, blueberries, and mulberries. Resveratrol inhibits the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and apoptosis as well as lengthens the life span of nerve cells via multiple mechanisms. Resveratrol treatment can reverse the progression of apoptosis, preserve mitochondrial membrane potential by reducing caspase-3, and inhibit cytochrome-C release, enhancing cell survival, as shown in many previous studies. Before the systemic administration of resveratrol in eye disease, it is necessary to consider the presence of the blood-ocular barrier—about 10 out of 35 eyes detected resveratrol in the conjunctiva after oral trans-resveratrol supplementation. Several studies have administered intravitreal injections of resveratrol to increase intraocular resveratrol concentrations. Conclusion: Resveratrol may be utilized as an alternative adjuvant treatment for glaucoma due to its antioxidant and antiapoptosis properties.
- Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury