Vannamei shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) is an important food commodity of economic benefit due to its high price, low susceptibility to disease, and popularity for consumption. These advantages have led many farmers to cultivate vannamei shrimp. Efforts are underway to improve the aquaculture performance of this species, including the use of probiotics, which are non-pathogenic bacteria that aid in digestion and help fight disease. Probiotics are usually obtained from the intestines of vannamei shrimp or the culture environment. They are low-cost, non-pathogenic, and largely non-toxic source of antibiotics and are able to synthesize various metabolites that have antibacterial functions and applications. Research on probiotic use has primarily been focused on increasing vannamei shrimp aquaculture production. Bacterial species, such as Lactobacillus or Nitrobacter, can be administered orally, by injection, or as a supplement in aquaculture water. Probiotics help to improve survival rate, water quality, immunity, and disease resistance through space competition with disease-causing bacteria, such as Vibrio spp. An increased number of probiotic bacteria suppresses the growth and presence of pathogenic bacteria, which lowers disease susceptibility. In addition, probiotic bacteria also aid digestion by breaking down complex compounds into simpler substances that the body can absorb more easily. This mechanism improves growth performance in terms of weight, length, and feed conversion ratio. This review aimed to provide information regarding contribution of probiotic to improve vannamei shrimp production in aquaculture.