Vaccination is deemed the best approach against the COVID-19 pandemic. In regard of safety and protectivity, the whole inactivated vaccine platform is advantageous and widely used. Whole inactivated vaccine provides broader protection against various antigenic components of SARS-CoV-2. This study aims to analyze the immune response of cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) following inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine administration. The analysis utilized the flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to evaluate CD59 NK cell expression and serum IL-6 level. This research used 6 macaques which were divided into 2 groups: Adult and Adolescence. Each group was consisted of 3 macaques. The macaques received two doses of 3 µg of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine with 21 days interval between first and second dose. CD59 and IL-6 level were measured before the first vaccination (D0), 21 days post-vaccination but before second dose (D21), and 14 days after the second dose (D35). The result showed significant escalation (p ≤ 0.05) of CD59 NK cell expression between D0, D21, and D35 in both adult and adolescence macaques. Higher expression of CD59 NK cell was found in adult macaques compared to adolescence macaques. Meanwhile, the level of IL-6 remained constant (p > 0.05) throughout D0, D21, and D35 in both groups. In conclusion, the inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate can increase CD59 NK cell expression significantly, while IL-6 level was mildly elevated although the differences were insignificant.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2847-2853
Number of pages7
JournalResearch Journal of Pharmacy and Technology
Issue number6
Publication statusPublished - Jun 2023


  • CD59
  • COVID-19
  • IL-6
  • Inactivated vaccine
  • SARS-CoV-2


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