The potential of eggshell hydroxyapatite, collagen, and EGCG (HAp-Col-EGCG) scaffold as a pulp regeneration material

Elline Elline, Kun Ismiyatin, Theresia Indah Budhy, Anuj Bhardwaj

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


Background: Hydrogel scaffold is a biomaterial that can facilitate cells in forming a tissue structure. It can promote cell adhesion, migration, and proliferation. Further research to find a new scaffold from natural resources is challenging, so this study aimed to characterize a hydrogel composite scaffold, which has the potential to be used as a regenerative material. Methods: The formulation of HAp-Col-EGCG was mixed with different ratios of 1%, 2%, and 4% hydroxyapatite. We analyzed its injectability, pH, and gelation time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX), and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) were used to evaluate the surface morphologies, element composition, and chemical properties of HAp-Col-EGCG. Results: The results showed that the injectability test was almost 90 % in all groups. There was no significant difference in the median value of the pH at 0, 20, and 60 min in all groups, but there was a significant difference at 40 min. The average gelation times in all groups were not significant. SEM-EDX showed a microporous scaffold, with the HAp particles well distributed in the collagen pores at a ratio of 1.9, 2.29, and 1.89 Ca/P. The FTIR results showed intermolecular bonds in the HAp-Col-EGCG scaffold. The X-ray diffraction analysis showed that collagen and EGCG did not affect the crystal structure and size of HAp. Cytotoxicity test showed more dental pulp cell viability at the 4 % HAp concentration at 514.35 ± 15.45. Conclusion: This study indicates that hydrogel scaffold from eggshell hydroxyapatite, collagen, and EGCG has a high potential for pulp regenerative therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)715-722
Number of pages8
JournalSaudi Dental Journal
Issue number8
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Characterization
  • HAp-Col-EGCG
  • Hydrogel scaffold
  • Pulp regeneration material


Dive into the research topics of 'The potential of eggshell hydroxyapatite, collagen, and EGCG (HAp-Col-EGCG) scaffold as a pulp regeneration material'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this