The Phytochemistry Profile of Piper Betle Extract and Its Activity Against Hepatitis C Virus

Tutik Sri Wahyuni, Lydia Tumewu, Adita A. Permanasari, Chie Aoki- Utsubo, Aty Widyawaruyanti, Achmad F. Hafid

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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is an RNA virus with a high mutation rate, making it prone to developing resistance. There is currently no vaccine for this disease, and the existing treatments are often costly. Therefore, this study aimed to provide alternative and complementary antiviral options from plant by evaluating the activity of Piper betle (P. betle) against HCV and its combination with existing antiviral drugs, Ribavirin and Simeprevir. The antiviral inhibition was identified by in vitro culture using Huh7it-1 cells and JFH1a HCV. The phytochemistry profile was also determined by Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The result showed that the ethanol extract of P. betle had strong activity with an IC50 value of 0.08 ± 0.028 µg/mL. The mechanism of action showed that the extract dominantly inhibited the post-entry steps. Furthermore, the combination of P. betle extract with simeprevir showed higher anti-HCV activity compared to the single use of the drug, but no effect was observed in the combination with ribavirin. The Western blotting analysis showed that the inhibition of NS3 protein levels was in a dose-dependent manner. Based on the phytochemistry evaluation, the extract was found to contain flavonoids, polyphenols, and alkaloids. These results suggested that the ethanolic extract of P. betle could be a good candidate for the development of alternative anti-HCV drugs.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)74-82
Number of pages9
JournalIndonesian Journal of Pharmacy
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2024



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