In Indonesia, cempedak (Artocarpus champeden Spreng) stembark from family of moraceae had been traditionally used for malarial treatment. Difference in the location of growth could cause the difference of metabolite fingerprints. As a result, there might be different toxicity and antimalarial activity in the same plants. The goal of this study was to obtain the fingerprints of the metabolites found in A. champeden stembark from different parts of Indonesia in order to authenticate and control the extract's quality. Fingerprints were performed using the HPTLC-Densitometry technique, in vitro toxicity and antimalarial activity were also determined using MTT assay and HRP2 assay. The correlation between metabolite fingerprints, toxicity and antimalarial activity was analysed using chemometrics tools: Principle Component Analysis (PCA), Partial Least Square (PLS) and Hierarchical Clustering Analysis (HCA). As a result, there is significant difference between fingerprints and toxicity profiles of A. champeden (p<0.05), whereas for antimalarial profiles, there is no significant difference between of them (p>0.05). Meanwhile, the nutrients (copper, zinc and manganese) are suspected to be responsible for the metabolite content. Besides morachalcone-A, compounds with Rf values of 0.66 and 0.63 can be proposed as additional markers because they have responsibility for antimalarial activity and toxicity. In conclusion, A. champeden from Maluku with the highest antimalarial activity (60.41+5.67 μg/mL) and safety at a therapeutic dose of 10 ppm (97.45+5.76) is recommended as a source of material for the development of herbal medicine.
- Artocarpus champeden
- Metabolite fingerprints