Introduction: A large body of research in workplace incivility has largely been conducted in the West, while in Asia, it is still relatively limited despite its close relationship to local cultural norms. The purpose of this study was to explore workplace incivility experienced by employees in Indonesia and develop a workplace incivility scale based on the behaviors identified. Methods: This research was divided into two studies. The participants in the first study were 217 employees asked to answer questions on whether they had experienced or had seen their co-workers experiencing incivility from co-workers or supervisor. The second study was the development of a workplace incivility scale based on the findings of the first study. The scale developed was tested on 561 participants in the second study. The participants were representatives of the various regions in Indonesia. Results: Most participants (88%) reported that they have experienced incivility by their coworker and/or their supervisor. The study found five factors of incivility behavior: personal affairs’ intervention, abandonment, unfriendly communication, inconsiderate behavior, and privacy invasion. We found a set of behaviors that are similar to the original construct of workplace incivility; yet another distinctive behavior also emerged, which we identify as a unique, culturally influenced workplace incivility. Conclusion: Therefore, research of workplace incivility should take the specific behavior in each culture into account. Construct validity of workplace incivility scale that we developed in this study is satisfying, although further comprehensive validity testing might be required.
- Incivility scale
- Unethical behavior