Objectives Liquid coconut shell smoke (LC-SS) is used in natural food preservation for a long history. The purpose of this study was to analyze the role of LC-SS in macrophage responses during diabetic oral ulcer healing as medication. Materials and Methods Oral ulcers were induced in the labial lower mucosa of the research subjects using a round steel blade following diabetic induction by means of alloxan. Twenty-four diabetic Wistar rats presenting oral ulcers were divided into two groups, a test group, which was given topical treatment of LC-SS and a control group, which was given benzydamine hydrochloride (BHCl). The role of LC-SS in macrophages was assessed by means of immunohistochemistry for nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) expression. Result LC-SS increased macrophages compared with BHCl (p = 0.000). The LC-SS affected only TNF-α expression by stimulating NF-κB expression (p = 0.046) but did not macrophage numbers (p = 0.861). Conclusion LC-SS has a stronger effect compared with BHCl on diabetic oral ulcer healing by increasing macrophage response to produce TNF-α while decreasing NF-κB expression.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)410-414
Number of pages5
JournalEuropean Journal of Dentistry
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Jul 2020


  • Benzydamine hydrochloride
  • Coconut shell
  • Liquid smoke
  • Macrophages
  • Oral ulcer


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