Objective: To determine the effect of prolotherapy on functional outcome changes, along with ratio of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1)/tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) as an indicator of tissue repair in the glenohumeral joint in frozen shoulder patients. Design: Single-blinded randomized controlled trial. Subjects/Patients: Participants with frozen shoulder. Methods: The prolotherapy group is the study group, and the normal saline (NS) group is the control group. Each group was given injections at weeks 0, 2, 4, and 6. Level of biomarker levels was measured at week 6 and week 12 after there. Functional outcomes were measured at weeks 0, 6, and 12. Results: A significant difference in week 6 and week 12 was demonstrated in the ratio of MMP-1/TIMP-1 level between the prolotherapy group and the normal saline group (P value =.002). Both groups performed well regarding the Numerical Rating Scale score and functional outcome. Compared to the normal saline group, prolotherapy changed the mean range of motion in flexion and internal rotation. Conclusion: Prolotherapy is considered to play a role in repairing cartilage based on biomarker assessment, particularly the ratio of MMP-1/TIMP-1-prolotherapy effectiveness in improving functional outcome and Numerical Rating Scale score.
- frozen shoulder
- functional outcome
- matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1)
- tissue inhibitor matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1)