The impact of tourism, urbanization, globalization, and renewable energy on carbon emissions: Testing the inverted N-shape environmental Kuznets curve

Rudi Purwono, Lilik Sugiharti, Miguel Angel Esquivias, Luluk Fadliyanti, Yessi Rahmawati, Baiq Saripta Wijimulawiani

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

This research investigates the relationship between tourism, urbanization, renewable energy, and carbon (CO2) emissions in 77 countries between 2008 and 2019. Specifically, by applying a quantile regression approach, this study delves into the existence of an inverted N-shape curve in the connection between tourism and CO2 emissions while also considering the roles of global economic activities, as indicated by the flows of tourism, trade, and foreign direct investment (FDI). The findings reveal an inverted N-shape correlation between tourism and CO2 emissions, indicating a decline in CO2 at the initial stage, a rise in CO2 as the sector matures, and finally a decline again in CO2. The study underscores the significance of adopting renewable energy sources and controlling urbanization to mitigate CO2 emissions. The findings also show that the control variables, i.e., GDP, FDI, and trade, impact carbon emissions differently. GDP positively and significantly affects CO2 emissions, particularly noticeable in the lower quartiles. Likewise, FDI positively and significantly affects CO2 emissions, with more contribution from higher quartiles than lower quartiles. Conversely, trade negatively and significantly impacts CO2 emissions, with higher quartiles showing a more pronounced effect. This research contributes to the tourism sector by providing empirical evidence on the importance of sustainable tourism practices and renewable energy integration, as well as the potential improvement as the sector matures.

Original languageEnglish
Article number100917
JournalSocial Sciences and Humanities Open
Volume10
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2024

Keywords

  • Foreign direct investment
  • Renewable energy
  • Sustainable economic growth
  • Sustainable tourism
  • Trade openness

Fingerprint

Dive into the research topics of 'The impact of tourism, urbanization, globalization, and renewable energy on carbon emissions: Testing the inverted N-shape environmental Kuznets curve'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this