In 1986, the National Nuclear Energy Agency (Batan) in Jakarta started the research and development for the setting up of a tissue bank (Batan Research Tissue Bank/BRTB) by preserving fresh amnion or fetal membranes by lyophilisation and then sterilising by gamma irradiation. During the period of 1990 and 2000, three more tissue banks were set up, i.e., Biomaterial Centre in Surabaya, Jamil Tissue Bank in Padang, and Sitanala Tissue Bank in Tangerang. In 1994, BRTB produced bone allografts. The banks established under the IAEA program concentrated its work on the production of amnion, bone and soft tissues allografts, as well as bone xenografts. These tissues (allografts and xenografts) were sterilised using gamma irradiation (about 90%) and the rest were sterilized by ETO and those products have been used in the treatment of patients at more than 50 hospitals in Indonesia. In 2004, those tissue banks produced 8,500 grafts and 5,000 of them were amnion grafts for eye treatment and wound dressing. All of those grafts were used for patients as well as for research. In 2006, the production increased to 9,000 grafts. Although the capacity of those banks can produce more grafts, we are facing problems on getting raw materials from suitable donors. To fulfill the demand of bone grafts we also produced bone xenografts. The impact of the IAEA program in tissue banking activities in Indonesia can be summarised as follows: to support the national program on importing substitutes for medical devices. The price of imported tissues are between US$ 50 and US$ 6,000 per graft. Local tissue bank can produce tissues with the same quality with the price for about 10-30% of the imported tissues.
- Tissue banking