The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on antimicrobial resistance at Dr. Soetomo Academic Hospital of Surabaya

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The coronavirus disease-2019 pandemic promote antibiotic resistance in bacteria due to overuse of antibiotics, and inhibit the spread of antibiotic-resistant bacteria due to numerous transmission control methods. The research is observational analytic with retrospective approach, aims to compare microorganism profile data, prevalence of multidrug-resistant microorganisms, and susceptibility patterns in patients treated at Dr. Soetomo Surabaya Hospital before and during the pandemic. The most species isolated before the pandemic: E. coli, K. pneumoniae, P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, A. baumannii, and Candida spp. The prevalence of multidrug resistant microorganisms before the pandemic: MRSA 28.4%, VRSA 3.57%, VRE 15.41%, ESBL 49.5% and carbapenem resistant 20.56%. The most species isolated during the pandemic: K. pneumoniae, E. coli, Candida spp, P. aeruginosa, A. baumannii, and S. aureus. Prevalence of multidrug resistant microorganisms during the pandemic: MRSA 29.3%, VRSA 1.5%, VRE 21.05%, ESBL 48.82% and carbapenem resistant 25.97%. The microorganism profiles are different before and during the pandemic, significant decrease in the prevalence of E. coli and S. aureus, significant increase in Candida spp. and carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae, particularly E. coli, E. cloacae, and Citrobacter spp, and significant alterations of susceptibility patterns in S. aureus, K. pneumoniae, E. coli, A. baumannii, and P. aeruginosa.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1058-1072
Number of pages15
JournalInternational Journal of Health Sciences
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • antimicrobial
  • carbapenem resistant
  • resistance
  • susceptibility pattern


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