Nonsurgical treatment such as scaling and root planing has been the main therapy of periodontal management. However, some individuals are nonresponsive with only mechanical therapy. Rice hull liquid smoke (RH-LS) with higher of phenolic compound supposed to interfere with inflammation process. Thus, the purpose of this study is to investigate the anti-inflammation properties of RH-LS for chronic periodontitis adjunct therapy by observing the expression of nuclear factor erythroid-2 (Nrf-2) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Two groups of Wistar rats were used. Control group was induced by 1 × 10 9 colony-forming unit (CFU)/ml Porphyromonas gingivalis (PG) and treated with aquadest for 2 and 7 days. Meanwhile, the other group was induced by 1 × 10 9 CFU/ml PG and treated with RH-LS for 2 and 7 days. Two central incisive/mandibulae were dissected and stained with immunohistochemistry for analyzed the expression of Nrf-2 and IL-1β. Data were then analyzed statistically using independent t-test (P = 0.05). Treatment with RH-LS for 7 days showed lower expression of IL-1β (4.00 ± 1.58) than control group (13.60 ± 2.70) and showed higher expression of Nrf-2 (11.60 ± 1.95) than control group (4.20 ± 1.64) (P = 0.000) (P < 0.05). Treatment of RH-LS for 2 days showed higher expression of Nrf-2 (2.20 ± 1.31) than control group (6.80 ± 1.92) (P = 0.003) (P < 0.05). RH-LS showed anti-inflammation properties by elevating the expression of Nrf-2 and depressing expression of IL-1β in periodontitis induced by PG.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)95-99
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Advanced Pharmaceutical Technology and Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2022


  • Chronic periodontitis
  • IL-1β
  • human and health
  • liquid smoke
  • nuclear factor erythroid-2 and Porphyromonas gingivalis


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