6 Citations (Scopus)


Transfersome has been developed to enhance dermal delivery of amniotic mesenchymal stem cell metabolite products (AMSC-MP). AMSC-MP contains many growth factors for managing skin aging, thus improving the quality of an adjusted life year. This study aims to determine the effect of surfactant types acting as the edge activator on transfersome-loading AMSC-MP. Transfersome was prepared by thin-layer hydration method and composed of l-α-phosphatidylcholine as a phospholipid and three types of surfactants, namely; cationic (stearylamine), anionic (sodium cholate), and nonionic surfactant (Tween 80) at a weight ratio of 85:15, respectively. Transfersomes were evaluated for physical characteristics, penetration, effectiveness, and safety. The results showed that sodium cholate, an anionic surfactant, produced the smallest transfersome particle size, i.e., 144.2 ± 3.2 nm, among all formulas. Trans-SA containing stearylamine had a positive charge of 41.53 ± 6.03 mV compared to Trans-SC and Trans-TW, whose respective charges were –56.9 ± 0.55 mV and –41.73 ± 0.86 mV. The small particle size and low negative value of zeta potential enabled high dermal penetration by transfersomes containing AMSC-MP, while the positive charge of stearylamine hindered its penetration of deeper skin layers. Trans-SC and Trans-TW produced higher collagen density values at 77.11 ± of 4.15% and 70.05 ± of 6.95%, than that of Trans-SA. All the AMSC-MP transfersomes were relatively safe with 0.5–1.0 macrophage cell numbers invaded the dermis per field of view. In conclusion, sodium cholate, an anionic surfactant, demonstrated considerable capacity as the edge activator of transfersome-loading AMSC-MP for skin anti-aging therapy.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)3443-3453
Number of pages11
JournalDrug Delivery
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • Quality adjusted life year
  • antiaging
  • edge activator
  • surfactants
  • transfersomes


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