Introduction: Plumbum is a heavy metal that is neurotoxic in children. Plumbum exposure in slum and densely populated environments adversely affects physical growth, nervous system development, memory disorders and learning disorders, cognitive deficits, psychological disorders and negative temperament of children that persist until adulthood. Zinc is an important trace element in the body. Increased free radical production and oxidative stress can interfere with homeostasis trace elements. Trace element zinc plays an important role in the mechanism of oxidants and antioxidants in microorganisms. Method: This study is an analytical study with a cross-sectional design with sampling using the random sampling method in grade 3 to 6 grade BK Surabaya elementary school. Measuring plumbum and zinc levels using hair media was measured by the Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometry (AAS) and temperament measurements using the Indonesia’s Children’s Temperament Questionnaire. Results and Discussions: Disorders of elemental levels and elemental imbalances will result in oxidative cellular component damage associated with the child’s negative temperament which adversely affects communication with parents, siblings with peers and poor academic performance. This disorder can be sustained in adolescence with clinical manifestations of aggressiveness, behavioral disorders and substance abuse and in adulthood the negative impact of difficulty finding work and poor communication in the family. Conclusions: Pb, Zinc, the ratio of zinc to Plumbum is significant to the child’s temperament.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)801-806
Number of pages6
JournalMedico-Legal Update
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 1 Apr 2020


  • Child temperament
  • Plumbum
  • Zinc
  • Zinc/plumbum ratio


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