The Effect of G. applanatum Crude Polysaccharide Extract on Proinflammatory Cytokines and Proapoptotic Caspases in HeLa Cell Line: An In Vitro Study

Qurrotu A'yun, Raden Joko Kuncoroningrat Susilo, Suhailah Hayaza, Nur'aini Fikriyah, Fina Syifa una Musthoza, Ufairanisa Islamatasya, Aulia Umi Rohmatika, Dwi Winarni, Sri Puji Astuti Wahyuningsih, Ruey An Doong, Deya Karsari, Aristika Dinar Yanti, Mochammad Zakki Fahmi, Win Darmanto

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

Abstract

Polysaccharide extracts exhibit promise as potential anticancer agents. Among the fungi rich in polysaccharide content, G. applanatum stands out; however, its anticancer activity necessitates further investigation. This study aims to explore the impact of G. applanatum crude polysaccharide (GACP) extract by assessing its effects on cell viability, levels of proinflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-12, and levels of proapoptotic markers including caspase-3 and caspase-9, as well as the percentages of necrosis and apoptosis in the HeLa cell line. Employing the HeLa cell line as a research model, four groups were studied: KN (media and DMSO), K+ (doxorubicin 10 μg/mL), P1 (G. applanatum extract 200 μg/mL), and P2 (G. applanatum extract 400 μg/mL). The G. applanatum extract was obtained via boiling distilled water. Anticancer activity was evaluated through the MTT test (3-(4,5-dimethylthiazole-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) conducted over three treatment durations (24, 48, and 72 hours). Cytokine levels and caspase-3 and caspase-9 levels were assessed using the ELISA test. Cell apoptosis was determined using the Annexin V-PI biomarker and analyzed through flow cytometry. The MTT test exhibited optimal results at the 48-hour treatment mark. Cytokine level analysis revealed significant reductions in TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-2, and IL-12 levels (p < 0.005). Concurrently, caspase-3 and caspase-9 levels exhibited substantial increases (p < 0.005). Flow cytometry highlighted the highest percentage of apoptosis in HeLa cells. In conclusion, G. applanatum's polysaccharide extract demonstrates potential as an anticancer and therapeutic agent for cancer treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Article number3593295
JournalAdvances in Pharmacological and Pharmaceutical Sciences
Volume2023
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - 2023

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