Calcium hydroxide as the gold standard pulp capping material, has a weakness, that it dissolves easily in oral cavity fluid. It creates a tunnel defect and increase the risk of sensitivity of the pulp. Blood clam (Anadara granosa) is an economic resource and easy to find in Indonesia. The blood clam shells, which is high content of calcium carbonate (CaCO3), have anti-inflammatory properties and good biocompatibility, good strength and stability in the wet dentine. Therefore, the blood clamshells are expected to be an alternative pulp protective material for initiating the dentin tissue deposition so that the healing process occurs by the formation of reactionary dentin. This study is expected to reveal the expression of NF-κβ, in odontoblast after administration of blood clam shells derived calcium carbonate, so that blood clamshells can be considered as an alternative pulp protecting material in large carious lesions. The samples of this study were 30 Rattus norvegicus strain wistar rats divided into 6 groups of rats consist of 5 random samples each. Cavity preparation around 1 mm is performed in the occlusal side of the right upper molar of rats. Group 1-3, the control group, was treated with RMGIC without calcium carbonate application. Group 4-6, the experimental group, were treated with blood clam shells derived calcium carbonate suspension and sealed with RMGIC. The teeth in each group were extracted after 1, 3 and 7 days accordingly then preparat slide was made. The HE and immunohistochemical stained using anti NF-κβ p65 antibodi monoclonal. The slides were counterstained, mounted and sealed using cover glass and observed under a light microscope. There were significant differences between each group in which the expression of NF-κβ was higher in the control group compared to the calcium carbonate treatment group. Application of calcium carbonat from blood cockle (Anadara Granosa) shells decrease the expression of the NF-κβ. It showed that calcium carbonat induced the healing process, triggered and led the odontoblast pulp cell to generate reactionary dentinogenesis by decreasing the NF-κβ number.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)549-553
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of International Dental and Medical Research
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Blood cockle shells
  • NF-κβ
  • calcium carbonat
  • dentin tertiary
  • healing process
  • inflammation
  • odontoblast


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