The design of pores in PCL/HA-associated PLA scaffold with 3D printing method

Dyah Hikmawati, Tiandini Dwi Sundari, Aminatun, Inten Firdhausi Wardhani

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contributionpeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)


The 3D printing application in tissue engineering is developing rapidly in the era of Industrial Revolution 4.0 (IR 4.0). One of its applications is in producing architectural design of scaffold. This scaffold could be designed based on the bone defect cases, which could be caused by injury, bone cancer, skeletal tuberculosis, and other bone abnormalities. 3D printing could possibly be used for designing pore sizes and shapes that support space availability in bone cell regeneration. This study aimed to design the scaffold's geometry of pore unit and size, which was printed using 3D Printing FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling) with filament Polylactic Acid (PLA). Samples were made in 2 groups, 1st group was the group of PLA scaffolds without fillers with pore size designs of 300 μm, 500 μm, 700 μm. While, the 2nd group was the group of PLA scaffolds filled by polycaprolacton (PCL)/hydroxyapatite (HA) with pore size designs of 1000 μm, 1200 μm, and 1400 μm. The composition of the PCL/HA fillers used was (90:10)% wt. Sample characterization included pore size test using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), porosity, compressive strength and degradability. The characterizations were carried out to determine their suitability for the bone scaffold application. The pore size test of the 1st group showed that the 300 μm pore design could not be measured because it was too small. Meanwhile, the pore size designs of 500 μm and 700 μm were measured and resulted 476.64 μm, and 696.955 μm. The porosity test obtained the data of porosity respectively 2.625%, 3.375% and 3.875%. The results of compressive strength test of the scaffolds were between 65.902-102.016 MPa. As for the 2nd group, the PLA-PCL/HA scaffolds samples were measured their pore sizes and resulted 658.85 μm, 1,080.00 μm and 1,230.54 μm respectively. Furthermore, the porosity test showed that the the porosity of the 2nd group was decreased if it was compared by the 1st group, i.e. 1,500%, 1.875% and 2.125%, respectively. The results of the compressive strength test were in the range of 86.840-162.379 MPa. The 1st and 2nd group showed the largest percentage of lost mass were 6.675% and 3.051% respectively, in 3 weeks. In conclusion, from all of the scaffold designs, the PLA-PCL/HA scaffolds with 1,000 μm pore design were the most suitable for mandibular cortical bone because of its characteristics, i.e. the 684.210 μm of pore size, degraded 3.051% in 21 days, compressive strength of 162.379 MPa and porosity of 1.500%.

Original languageEnglish
Title of host publication2nd International Conference on Physical Instrumentation and Advanced Materials 2019
EditorsHerri Trilaksana, Sulaiman Wadi Harun, Cameron Shearer, Moh Yasin
PublisherAmerican Institute of Physics Inc.
ISBN (Electronic)9780735440562
Publication statusPublished - 9 Dec 2020
Event2nd International Conference on Physical Instrumentation and Advanced Materials, ICPIAM 2019 - Surabaya, Indonesia
Duration: 22 Oct 2019 → …

Publication series

NameAIP Conference Proceedings
ISSN (Print)0094-243X
ISSN (Electronic)1551-7616


Conference2nd International Conference on Physical Instrumentation and Advanced Materials, ICPIAM 2019
Period22/10/19 → …


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