Introduction: Coconut shell liquid smoke (CS-LS) from Cocos nucifera L. has been traditionally used by Indonesians as a natural preservative. Besides that, liquid smoke is also used as a medicine to treat various types of wounds. During the storage, liquid smoke resulting from pyrolysis is still questionable in relation to the oxidation process and changes in its properties and potentials. We observed the physical characteristics, components, toxicity, anti-inflammatory, anti-nociceptive properties, and effect in oral ulcer healing of CS-LS. Methods: Acidity was analyzed using a digital pH meter, density test was analyzed using a pycnometer, and the components were determined using gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Eight concentrations of CS-LS (1%, 2%, 4%, 6%, 8%, 10%, 12%, and 14%) were tested on baby hamster kidney (BHK21) for the extract toxicity, carrageenan-induced rat paw edema for its anti-inflammatory properties, hot-plate test for its anti-nociceptive, and traumatized labial fornix incisive inferior for its oral ulcer healing. Results: The acidity of CS-LS was 2.296 and the density was 1.0102 g/mL. The major components analyzed were phenol (32.75%), 2-methoxy-phenol (17.45%), and furfural (13.09%). The CS-LS 100% and CS-LS 8% were the optimum concentrations for maintaining the BHK21 and increasing the number of fibroblasts in oral ulcer healing. The CS-LS 100% showed potent anti-nociceptive ability compared to other concentrations (P=0.001), but not for the anti-inflammation properties. Conclusion: CS-LS is a promising natural herb for oral medicine, especially oral ulcer medicine.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)459-467
Number of pages9
JournalJournal of HerbMed Pharmacology
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Anti-inf lammatory
  • Anti-nociception
  • Bio-economy
  • Coconut shell liquid smoke
  • Cytotoxicity
  • Oral ulcer


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