The concentration of potentially toxic elements (zinc, iron, manganese) bound PM2.5 in the indoor air of urban schools: a global systematic review and meta-analysis

Yadolah Fakhri, Maedeh Akhlaghi, Hasti Daraei, Zoha Hedarinejad, Amenh Bahreini, Trias Mahmudiono, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Exposure to potentially toxic elements (PTEs) bound to PM2.5 can cause various health effects, including cardiovascular disease, allergies, and other related diseases. There have been several studies on the concentration of PTEs, including zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), and manganese (Mn) bound PM2.5 in the indoor air of urban schools. In this study, the concentration of Zn, Fe, and Mn in the indoor air of schools bound PM2.5 were meta-analyzed. PubMed and Scopus were used to retrieve papers related to the concentration of PTEs bound PM2.5 in the indoor air of urban schools from January 1, 2000 to March 10, 2020. The concentration of PTEs in PM2.5 was meta-analyzed based on the country subgroup in the random-effects model (REM). Thirty papers with 25 data reports were included in the study. The rank order of PTEs bound PM2.5 was Zn (17.32 ng/m3) > Fe (14.49 ng/m3) > Mn (7.40 ng/m3). The rank order of countries based on the concentration of Fe-bound PM2.5 in the indoor air of urban schools was China > Poland > Italy > Spain > Taiwan > Turkey > Iran) > Chile; Zn, Poland > Iran > Taiwan > Turkey > Spain > Italy > Chile; and for Mn, Poland > China > Iran > Taiwan > Spain > Italy > Chile. The pooled concentration of PTEs (Fe, Mn, and Zn) bound PM2.5 in the indoor air of urban schools in Poland and China was higher than in other countries, hence, therefore, it is recommended to carry out a PM2.5 concentration reduction program in the indoor air of schools in these countries.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)77-84
Number of pages8
JournalAir Quality, Atmosphere and Health
Volume16
Issue number1
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jan 2023

Keywords

  • Air pollution, PM
  • Indoor air
  • Meta-analysis
  • Potentially toxic elements

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