The concentration of pesticides in tomato: a global systematic review, meta-analysis, and health risk assessment

Pouria Karimi, Sepideh Sadeghi, Fatemeh Kariminejad, Mohsen Sadani, Amir Mohammad Sheikh Asadi, Ali Oghazyan, Abotaleb Bay, Trias Mahmudiono, Yadolah Fakhri

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


To improve farming productivity, a large number of pesticides have been used worldwide in recent decades, leading to the pollution of soil, agri-products, and water, directly/indirectly affecting human health. In this regard, many studies were conducted in different countries on residual pesticides in the environment. In the current study, residual pesticides including chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin, diazinon, malathion, and metalaxyl in tomatoes were meta-analyzed and health risk of consumers was estimated. For this purpose, based on a systematic review, data from 47 studies were extracted and meta-analyzed, and the health impact of pooled concentrations was assessed via a health risk method. According to the results, metalaxyl had the most concentration followed by malathion, cypermethrin, diazinon, and chlorpyrifos, respectively. The non-carcinogenic risk (n-CR) was calculated from crop consumption also showed that exposure to malathion has the most risk. Among the investigated communities, Iranian consumers were in considerable health risk (THQ > 1). Considering that the potential for the use of pesticides will increase with the need for food in the future, hence, governments must manage the usage by governments via alternative methods such as cultural, biological, physical, and genetic modifications.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)103390-103404
Number of pages15
JournalEnvironmental Science and Pollution Research
Issue number47
Publication statusPublished - Oct 2023


  • Health risk assessment
  • Meta-analysis
  • Pesticide
  • Systematic review
  • Tomato


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