The concentration of Lithium in water resources: A systematic review, meta-analysis and health risk assessment

Trias Mahmudiono, Yadolah Fakhri, Hasti Daraei, Fereshteh Mehri, Mahtab Einolghozati, Sara Mohamadi, Amin Mousavi Khaneghah

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


The presence of trace elements such as lithium (Li) in water resources in the long term can endanger consumers' health. Several studies have been conducted on Li concentration in water sources; hence, this study attempted to retrieve studies using a systematic search. The search was conducted in Web of Sciences, Embase, PubMed, and Scopus databases from 1 January 2010 to 15 January 2023. Li concentration was meta-analyzed based on the type of water resources and countries subgroups in the random effects model (REM) statistical analysis. In addition, health risk assessment in different age groups was calculated using the target hazard quotient (THQ). This study included 76 papers with 157 data reports in our meta-analysis. The overall pooled concentration of Li was 5.374 (95% CI: 5.261-5.487μg/L). The pooled concentration of Li in groundwater (40.407μg/L) was 14.53 times surface water (2.785μg/L). The highest water Li content was attributed to Mexico (2,209.05μg/L), Bolivia (1,444.05μg/L), Iraq (1,350μg/L), and Argentina (516.39μg/L). At the same time, the lowest water Li content was associated with Morocco (1.20μg/L), Spain (0.46μg/L), and India (0.13μg/L). THQ due to Li in water resources in consumers of Iraq, Mexico, South Africa, Afghanistan, Bolivia, Portugal, Malawi, South Korea, Nepal, South Korea, Argentina, and the USA was higher than 1 value. Therefore, continuous monitoring of Li concentration in water sources and reducing Li concentration, especially in groundwater water, using new water treatment processes in these countries are recommended.

Original languageEnglish
JournalReviews on Environmental Health
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • health risk assessment
  • lithium
  • meta-analysis
  • water resources


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