The Characteristics and Potency of Limestone-based carbonate hydroxyapatite to Viability and Proliferation of Human Umbilical Cord Mesenchymal Stem Cell

Devi Rianti, Wahyudi Kristanto, Herlina Damayanti, Tansza S. Putri, Aristika Dinaryanti, Ardiyansyah Syahrom, Anita Yuliati

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Background: Limestone primarily consists of CaCO3 (calcium carbonate), which have a similarity to one of human bone component, hydroxyapatite (HA), an element of apatite group (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2). There were several setbacks in the use of artificial hydroxyapatite in the bone repair process; one of them was its relatively higher crystallinity level compared to those of human bone apatite. The addition of carbonate element to hydroxyapatite could improve its characteristics, such as increasing the solubility, decreasing the crystallinity, and changing the morphology of the crystal. That caused carbonate hydroxyapatite is preferable to help in the bone repair process. Aims: This study aimed to find the effect of limestone-based CHA on viability and proliferation of hUMSCs, thus discovering the potential of CHA as a bone graft biomaterial candidate derived from limestone. Methods: This study used FTIR, EDX, and XRD assays to CHA powder sample derived from limestone found in Padalarang and Cirebon extracted by BBK. Two grams of the sample were placed in the sample holder and examined by computer software. EDX assay was conducted three times in three different points, and the means were recorded. In the XRD assay, a carbon tip was put to the sample holder to allow sample attachment. The recorded data was compared to JCPDS data. Toxicity and proliferation examination of CHA were conducted through MTT assay in human umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (hUCMSC) cell lines with four different doses: 50µg/ml, 25µg/ml, 12,5µg/ml, and 6,25µg/ml. Results: Limestone-based CA has hydroxyl (OH-), phosphate (PO42-), and carbonate (CO32-) functional groups. It has crystal particle formation and consists of O, Ca, and P elements. The result of the MTT assay showed limestone-based CHA is not toxic in all concentrations and has the proliferative ability. There were significant differences between the control and treatment groups. Conclusion: CHA has OH-, PO42-, and CO3 2-function group. It has crystal particle formation and O, Ca, and P elements as its composition, with a Ca/P ratio of 1,67. It shows no toxicity to hUCMSC in all doses and has the ability to stimulate hUCMSC proliferation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2285-2292
Number of pages8
JournalResearch Journal of Pharmacy and Technology
Issue number5
Publication statusPublished - May 2022


  • Carbonate Hydroxyapatite
  • Cytotoxicity
  • Limestone
  • Medicine
  • Mesenchymal Stem Cells


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