Bones and teeth require nutrients to maintain optimal bone density. Environmental and habitual factors affect 20-40% of bone density in addition to several nutrients such as vitamin D, especially for UV-B exposures which are essential for bone growth. Research on the impact of nutrition on bone strength has historically geared towards minerals, vitamin D, protein, and vitamin K. This study aimed to examine the role of vitamin D3, K2 supplements, and UV-B exposure on bone density, reflected by osteoblast cell formation. Pre and post-experimental laboratory studies were conducted to Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus), which were divided into six groups. As much as 0.00045 mg/day of vitamin D and 0.81 mcg/day of K2 were administered. Besides, 290-315 nm of UV-B was administered 3 times a week for 25 minutes each. With the HE (hematoxylin eosin) test, the level of osteoblast cell was calculated after 21 days of treatment. Descriptive test results showed that the highest mean score was obtained from the vitamin D3+ K2 group. The ANOVA test result showed sig < 0.05 (p < 0.05), which indicated a significant difference. This research shows that the combination of vitamin D3 and K2 significantly increased osteoblast cell formation.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1453-1458
Number of pages6
JournalJournal of International Dental and Medical Research
Issue number4
Publication statusPublished - 2021


  • Bone density
  • Human and health
  • Osteoblast
  • Vitamin d3
  • Vitamin k2


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