The activity of Meniran (Phyllanthus niruri Linn.) extract on Salmonella pullorum infected broilers

Sri Hidanah, Emy Koestanti Sabdoningrum, Kadek Rachmawati, Soeharsono Soeharsono, Gede Govinda Ananta Trika, Masy Ariel Huda, Tsania Putri Widiati

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)

Abstract

Background and Aim: Pullorum is an acute and chronic disease caused by Salmonella pullorum, often infecting chicken farms. Pullorum disease treatment using antibiotics that do not follow the control dose can cause bacteria to become antibiotic-resistant. Meniran contributes to inhibiting and antagonizing bacteria and can increase the efficiency of chicken feed because of its bioactive compounds, including alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, and saponins. This study aimed to determine the activity of Meniran extract (Phyllanthus niruri Linn.) in broilers infected with S. pullorum. Materials and Methods: In vitro study that was conducted includes phytochemical test, diffusion, and dilution methods using Meniran extract at 5%, 10%, 20%, and 40% concentrations and tylosin at 2% concentration. The data of the dilution method (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] and minimum bactericidal concentration [MBC]) were processed using probit analysis to determine LC50. In vivo study was conducted by randomly dividing 20 broilers into five treatment groups, four per group. The chickens (except in group P0-) were infected with S. pullorum aged 14 days. Then, the treatment was conducted according to the divided groups when the chickens were aged 21-34 days. The said treatments are P0- (uninfected S. pullorum and unadministered with Meniran extract), P0+ (infected with S. pullorum and unadministered with Meniran extract), and P1, P2, and P3 (infected with S. pullorum and administered with Meniran extract with 5%, 10%, and 20% concentrations, respectively). Data from the phytochemical test were analyzed as descriptive. The data from the diffusion method were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan's test. Then, the results of broilers' performance were analyzed using ANOVA and Duncan's test. Results: The phytochemical test showed positive for alkaloid, tannin, saponin, flavonoid, and steroid/triterpenoid. The diffusion method formed the largest zone at 40% concentration with 15.6 mm, while 20%, 10%, and 5% had average of 13.15 mm, 8.38 mm, and 5.8 mm, respectively. The dilution method (MIC and MBC) exhibited the antibacterial ability of Meniran extract against S. pullorum at 20% dose and LC50 14.118% concentration. The Meniran extract administration in broilers exhibited improved performance of chickens infected with S. pullorum, with the administration of 20% dose of Meniran extract showing the best result. Conclusion: About 20% concentration Meniran extract can serve as an antibacterial agent and showed the best results in broilers infected with S. pullorum.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1373-1382
Number of pages10
JournalVeterinary World
Volume15
Issue number5
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - May 2022

Keywords

  • Phyllanthus niruri Linn.
  • Salmonella pullorum
  • broiler chicken performance
  • food security

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