Synthesis of ferulic acid and its non covalent inclusion with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin

Ekowati Juni, S. D. Rahman, D. Isadiartuti, R. Widyowati, T. Budiati

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


Ferulic acid (FA) is a highly effective compound with many activities, but it is poorly suited for pharmaceutics application because of its low physicochemical properties. In the present study we synthesized FA through microwave assisted Knoevenagel condensation using malonic acid and 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde, in the present of organic base as catalyst. The optimization of the synthesis method was done by comparing the base catalyst; that are pyridine, triethyl amine and morpholine. The structure of FA was determined through UV, FTIR, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS spectroscopic methods. Improvement the physicochemical properties of FA was carried out through the establishment of the non covalent inclusion of FA with hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CD) by the kneading method. Its physicochemical characterizations were performed by FTIR and 1H-NMR spectroscopic methods, ROESY experiment, differential thermal analysis (DTA), X-Ray diffractometry (XRD) and dissolution rate. Microwave irradiation that assisted synthesis of FA using morpholine as catalyst produced the highest yield compared to other catalysts. All of the characteristic d ata showed that non-covalent inclusion of FA/HP-β-CD has been formed. The dissolution rate of inclusion complex of FA/HP-β-CD was increasing significantly compared with FA.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)198-205
Number of pages8
JournalInternational Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 2016


  • Hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin
  • Inclusion complex
  • Knoevenagel condensation
  • Microwave irradiated


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