Suppressive effect of goat bile in Plasmodium berghei ANKA infection in mice

Heny Arwati, Ramadhani R. Bahalwan, Windya T. Hapsari, Kartika A. Wardhani, Kholida N. Aini, Putu I.B. Apsari, Puspa Wardhani

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1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Background and Aim: Some individuals in Indonesia consume intact goat gallbladder to prevent and treat malaria. The acute and subacute toxicity tests of goat bile (GB) have shown mild diarrhea in mice. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the suppressive effect of GB on parasitemia, splenomegaly, hepatomegaly, and blood biochemistry to assess liver and kidney function in BALB/c mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA. Materials and Methods: Fifty healthy mice were infected with P. berghei ANKA and divided into five groups. Mice in three groups were administered 0.5 mL of 25%, 50%, or 100% of GB by gavage. Animals in Group 4 were administered 187.2 mg/kg BW of dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine phosphate as a positive control (POS Group). Mice in fifth group were administered sterile water as negative (NEG) controls. Further, 30 uninfected mice were divided into groups 6-8 and administered GB as were mice in the first three groups. Group 9 included 10 uninfected and untreated animals as healthy controls. Treatments were administered in a 4-day suppressive test followed by daily observation of Giemsa-stained blood smears. On day 7, mice were sacrificed to measure the length and weight of spleens and livers, plasma levels of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine. Results: GB suppressed parasitemia but did not affect the size and weight of spleens or livers or plasma levels of AST and ALT compared to uninfected GB-treated and healthy control animals. Conversely, plasma levels of BUN and creatinine were suppressed and remained in the normal range in all groups of mice. Conclusion: GB suppresses parasitemia with no significant impact on hepatic enzymes in GB-treated infected mice. Liver dysfunction in GB-treated infected mice was due to P. berghei rather than GB treatment.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)2016-2022
Number of pages7
JournalVeterinary World
Volume14
Issue number8
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Aug 2021

Keywords

  • Blood biochemistry
  • Goat bile
  • Hepatomegaly
  • Malaria
  • Splenomegaly
  • Suppressive effect

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