Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is characterized by a large degree of genetic variability because of high rates of recombination and mutation, sizable population sizes, and rapid replication. Therefore, this study investigated HIV-1 subtype distribution and the appearance of drug resistance mutations (DRMs) in viruses that are prevalent in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. The HIV-1 pol, env, and gag genes were amplified from 63 infected individuals and sequenced for a subtyping analysis. CRF01_AE was identified as the predominant HIV-1 circulating recombinant form (CRF) in Makassar, South Sulawesi, Indonesia. Subtype B and recombinant viruses containing CRF01_AE, CRF02_AG, and/or subtype B gene fragments were also detected. Several major DRMs against non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors were found among antiretroviral therapy (ART)-experienced subjects, whereas ART-naive subjects did not possess any transmitted drug resistance. The prevalence of DRMs was very high among ART-experienced subjects; therefore, further surveillance is required in this region.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)124-129
Number of pages6
JournalAIDS Research and Human Retroviruses
Issue number3
Publication statusPublished - 1 Mar 2023


  • CRF01_AE
  • HIV drug resistance
  • HIV-1 subtype
  • Indonesia
  • Makassar


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