Strategic Assessment of Boron-Enriched Carbon Dots/Naproxen: Diagnostic, Toxicity, and In Vivo Therapeutic Evaluation

Aswandi Wibrianto, Febrianti S.D. Putri, Ummi K. Nisa, Nila Mahyahani, Siti F.A. Sugito, Andika P. Wardana, Satya C.W. Sakti, Jia Yaw Chang, Mochamad Z. Fahmi

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review


Cancer is a significant global public health concern, ranking as the leading cause of mortality worldwide. This study thoroughly explores boron-doped carbon dots (B-CDs) through a simple/rapid microwave-assisted approach and their versatile applications in cancer therapy. The result was highly uniform particles with an average diameter of approximately 4 nm. B-CDs exhibited notable properties, including strong fluorescence with a quantum yield of 33%. Colloid stability tests revealed their robustness within a pH range of 6-12, NaCl concentrations up to 0.5 M, and temperatures ranging from 30 to 60 °C. The study also delved into the kinetics of naproxen release from B-CDs as a drug delivery system. The loading efficacy of naproxen exceeded 55.56%. Under varying pH conditions, the release of naproxen from B-CDs conformed to the Peppas-Sahlin model, demonstrating the potential of Naproxen-loaded CDs for cancer drug delivery. In vitro cytotoxicity assessments, conducted using the CCK-8 Assay and flow cytometry, consistently indicated low toxicity with average cell viability exceeding 80%. An in vivo toxicity test on female mice administered 20 mg/kg of B-CDs for 31 days revealed reversible histological changes in the liver and kidneys, while the pancreas remained unaffected. Importantly, B-CDs did not impact the mice’s physical behavior, body weight, or survival. In vivo experiments targeting benzo(a)pyrene-induced fibrosarcoma demonstrated the efficacy of B-CDs as naproxen carriers in the treatment of cancer. This in vivo study provides a thorough comprehension of B-CDs synthesis and toxicity and their potential applications in cancer therapy and drug delivery systems.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)801-812
Number of pages12
JournalMolecular Pharmaceutics
Issue number2
Publication statusPublished - 5 Feb 2024


  • boron-doped carbon dots
  • drug delivery
  • in vivo
  • naproxen
  • toxicity


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