Spatio and Temporal Analysis of Indonesia Land Surface Temperature Variation During 2001–2020

Munawar Munawar, Tofan Agung Eka Prasetya, Rhysa McNeil, Rohana Jani, Suhaimee Buya

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Citations (Scopus)


The temperature increase characterizes global warming that occurs. Land Surface Temperature (LST) is an important indicator in climate science to assess the temperature condition of a place. This research aimed to examine the trend and variation in land surface temperature in the Indonesia archipelago by applying the cubic spline method and multivariate regression. Indonesia’s territory was divided into five main islands, 21 super-regions with 189 sub-regions using 105-pixels (95 km) of longitude and latitude distance. The data for each sub-region were downloaded from NASA Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer from 2001 to 2020. Overall, Indonesia has had a stable LST with a total average increase of 0.009 °C (95% confidence interval: −0.041,0.059 °C). The variation differed by island; a significant increase in Sumatra and Kalimantan, a significant decrease in Java and Bali and Sulawesi, and a slight decrease in Papua. For future investigation, the variation in LST on a larger island, namely a continent, must be investigated. Additional factors, such as Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, land use and land cover, might also be beneficial.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)1393-1407
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of the Indian Society of Remote Sensing
Issue number7
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2023


  • Cubic spline
  • Indonesia archipelago
  • Land surface temperature
  • Stable temperature


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