Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) remains a serious health threat in Indonesia. In particular, the CRF01_AE viruses were the predominant HIV-1 strains in various cities in Indonesia. However, information on the dynamic transmission characteristics and spatial–temporal transmission of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in Indonesia is limited. Therefore, the present study examined the spatial–temporal transmission networks and evolutionary characteristics of HIV-1 CRF01_AE in Indonesia. To clarify the epidemiological connection between CRF01_AE outbreaks in Indonesia and the rest of the world, we performed phylogenetic studies on nearly full genomes of CRF01_AE viruses isolated in Indonesia. Our results showed that five epidemic clades, namely, IDN clades 1–5, of CRF01_AE were found in Indonesia. To determine the potential source and mode of transmission of CRF01_AE, we performed Bayesian analysis and built maximum clade credibility trees for each clade. Our study revealed that CRF01_AE viruses were commonly introduced into Indonesia from Southeast Asia, particularly Thailand. The CRF01_AE viruses might have spread through major pandemics in Asian countries, such as China, Vietnam, and Laos, rather than being introduced directly from Africa in the early 1980s. This study has major implications for public health practice and policy development in Indonesia. The contributions of this study include understanding the dynamics of HIV-1 transmission that is important for the implementation of HIV disease control and prevention strategies in Indonesia.

Original languageEnglish
Article number9917
JournalScientific Reports
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2024


  • CRF01_AE
  • HIV-1
  • Indonesia
  • Spatial–temporal


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