Background: There is a growing concern on how to increase tuberculosis (TB) case detection in resource-poor settings. The healthcare facilities routinely providing services to the elderly for chronic diseases often failed to detect TB cases, causing a missed opportunity. This study aimed to develop a simple and sensitive screening tool using signs, symptoms, and risk factors for TB case detection in the elderly. Methods: This was a cross-sectional study conducted from August to December 2020. A random sample of 302 subjects was taken from the elderly aged ≥ 60 years attending the outpatient polyclinic at Mangunharjo hospital, Madiun, East Java, Indonesia, for a chronic disease problem. The test was developed using 16 TB signs, symptoms, and risk factors. Test performance was assessed by comparing it against the GeneXpert MTB/RIF. Results: Marginal analysis resulted in the optimal cut-point of ≥ 7 for the test, which gave an area under the curve (AUC) of 0.62, with the maximum marginal AUC of 0.04 (p < 0.001). The sensitivity and specificity were 60.26% and 64.29%, meaning 60 TB cases for every 100 elderly with TB would be otherwise left undetected if this screening test did not take place. Conclusion: A simple TB screening tool with moderate sensitivity and AUC has been developed using TB signs, symptoms, and risk factors. It can be used as an initial step of the systematic TB screening in the elderly visiting healthcare facilities for routine chronic disease examination, with the additional utility of reducing the missed opportunity.

Original languageEnglish
Article number208
JournalBMC Pulmonary Medicine
Issue number1
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • Area under the ROC curve
  • Risk factor
  • Sign
  • Symptom
  • Tuberculosis


Dive into the research topics of 'Simple tuberculosis screening tool using signs, symptoms, and risk factors to reduce the missed opportunity in the older population'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this