Background: There is an urgent need to identify effective therapy to treat coronavirus diseases 2019 (COVID-19). Supplement consumption is becoming popular in this pandemic era. An example of this is probiotic consumption to improve the host's immune system. Objective: This study aimed to prove whether antibodies from people taking probiotics could influence lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) values, and cell viability in vitro in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) inoculated with the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein as COVID-19 cells models. Methods: This was an experimental study with control and intervention groups, totally in 12 groups divided based on antibody levels, probiotic intervention, probiotic non-intervention group, SARS-CoV-2 infection group, and non-SARS-CoV-2 infection group. In vitro assays were carried out on PBMC cell cultures inoculated with S1 SARS-CoV-2 recombinant as a COVID-19 cell model. The COVID-19 cell model was given antibodies divided into three antibody level groups: sRBD levels of <3, 325.76 and 646.18. The cytotoxicity assessment examined increased levels of LDH, cytopathic activity by measuring ATP levels, and cell viability by XTT (2,3-Bis-(2-Methoxy-4-Nitro-5-Sulfophenyl)-2H-Tetrazolium-5-Carboxanilide) assay. Data were analyzed with SPSS 21 for Windows. Results: This study showed a significant difference in the LDH value (p < 0.001) between each group. The difference in ATP values between groups was significant (p < 0.001). Meanwhile, the cell viability examination found that there was a tendency of decreased XTT (cell viability in %) when there was an increase of LDH and ATP. Conclusion: The change of LDH values occurred most in the antibody group that did not consume probiotics. The highest cytopathic activity based on the ATP values occurred in the infected cell culture group with antibody levels of 325.76 and consuming probiotics. In addition, LDH and ATP activities provided evidence of a significant influence on cell viability.

Original languageEnglish
Article number101348
JournalBiochemistry and Biophysics Reports
Publication statusPublished - Dec 2022


  • IgG sRBD
  • Neutralisation test
  • Probiotics for COVID-19
  • Protein spikes recombinant
  • in vitro COVID-19 models


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