Background: To limit the SARS-CoV-2 transmission, the Indonesian government launched a COVID-19 vaccination program in January 2021. Studies on the clinical treatment and implementation of COVID-19 vaccination have shown promising results; however, it is necessary to estimate the effectiveness of the vaccines. With the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, studies have highlighted the impact of COVID-19 vaccines, especially CoronaVac, on Indonesian healthcare workers. To get a better picture of how the vaccines work in Indonesia, it is necessary to estimate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 anti-S IgG antibody induced by the COVID-19 vaccine in individuals who have already received two-to-three doses of vaccines. Materials and Methods: Four-hundred and ninety-six whole-blood samples were collected from participants residing in Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia, who received a minimum of a two-dose COVID-19 vaccine. Serums were then isolated from the blood and subjected to detect SARS-CoV-2 anti-S IgG antibodies using a lateral flow immunochromatographic assay. Results: The prevalence of positive anti-S-IgG antibodies was 91.7% (455/496) in all participants receiving a minimum of a two-dose COVID-19 vaccine. As many as 209 (85.3%) and 141 (96.6%) participants were seropositive for receiving CoronaVac and AstraZeneca, respectively. Meanwhile, all participants receiving two-dose CoronaVac with one booster dose of Moderna (105/100%) were seropositive (p < 0.05). Age, comorbidity, and time after the last vaccine were significantly correlated with seropositivity (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Different vaccines might produce different antibody responses. Adopting a stronger policy regarding the administration of booster doses might be beneficial to elicit positive anti-S-IgG antibodies, especially among older individuals, those with comorbid diseases, and those with a longer time after the second vaccination dose.

Original languageEnglish
Article numbere16142
Publication statusPublished - 2023


  • Anti-S-IgG
  • COVID-19 vaccine
  • Indonesia
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Seroprevalence


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