Seroconversion rates among different designs of COVID-19 vaccines: a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

Gatot Soegiarto, Jonny Karunia Fajar, Laksmi Wulandari, Muhammad Anshory, Muhammad Ilmawan, Anisa Asmiragani, Himma Illiyana, Azaria Adam, Sutini Lamadi, Umi Sa'adah, Tubagus Yuantoko, Esi Nanda, Farida Rachmawati, Nabila Rahmadani, Randy Talilah, Madyline Katipana, Sharon Susanto, Maria Hindom, Ufi Anjasari, Nur HidayahNanda Fadilla, Vanela Lekatompessy, Uzi Phoenna, Fredo Tamara, Dessy Aprilia Kartini, Aditya Indra Mahendra, Andi Permana, Erwin Alexander Pasaribu, Kuldeep Dhama, Harapan Harapan

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 vaccination program, which uses various types of vaccines, has been applied since the beginning of 2021. However, the efficacy in the context of seroconversion rate remains unclear. OBJECTIVE: To assess the seroconversion rates among different COVID-19 vaccines using a network meta-analysis approach. METHODS: A network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials (RCTs) was conducted during the study period. Data of interest, such as seroconversion rate and the type of COVID-19 vaccine, were extracted from each study. The analysis was performed using single-arm analysis by calculating the cumulative seroconversion rate. A network meta-analysis was conducted using the Bayesian method. RESULTS: A total of 31 RCTs were included in our analysis. Our pooled calculation revealed that the seroconversion rates of inactivated messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA), protein subunit, and vector COVID-19 vaccines during the follow-up periods were 93.2%, 93.9%, 65.3%, and 54.7%, respectively, at ≤ 15 days; 96.0%, 94.8%, 91.2%, and 89.7%, respectively, between days 16–30; and 98.5%, 98.6%, 98.5%, and 96.2%, respectively, between days 31–60.The indirect comparison revealed that in the follow-up periods of ≤ 15 and 16–30 days, the inactivated and mRNA COVID-19 vaccines had superior seroconversion rates compared with those of the protein subunit and vector vaccines. In the follow-up period of 31–60 days, the highest seroconversion rates were found in the inactivated, mRNA, and protein subunit COVID-19 vaccines. CONCLUSION: This study provides valuable information regarding the comparison of seroconversion rates of COVID-19 vaccines.

Original languageEnglish
Article number299
Publication statusPublished - 2022


  • COVID-19; vaccine; seroconversion; efficacy; immunization


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