Sequential Co-infection of Heligmosomoides polygyrus and Mycobacterium tuberculosis Determine Lung Macrophage Polarization and Histopathological Changes

Laksmi Wulandari, Muhammad Amin, Soedarto, Gatot Soegiarto, Kenji Ishiwata

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1 Citation (Scopus)

Abstract

Background: Tuberculosis is a chronic infection caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb), which needs proper macrophage activation for control. It has been debated whether the co-infection with helminth will affect the immune response to mycobacterial infection. Objective: To determine the effect of sequential co-infection of Heligmosomoides polygyrus (H.pg) nematodes and M.tb on T cell responses, macrophages polarization and lung histopathological changes. Method: This study used 49 mice divided into 7 treatment groups, with different sequence of infection of M.tb via inhalation and H.pg via oral ingestion for 8 and 16 weeks. T cells response in the lung, intestine, and peripheral blood were determined by flow cytometry. Cytokines (IL-4, IFN-γ, TGB-β1, and IL-10) were measured in peripheral blood using ELISA. Lung macrophage polarization were determined by the expression of iNOS (M1) or Arginase 1 (M2). Mycobacterial count were done in lung tissue. Lung histopathology were measured using Dorman's semiquantitative score assessing peribronchiolitis, perivasculitis, alveolitis, and granuloma formation. Result: M.tb infection induced Th1 response and M1 macrophage polarization, while H.pg infection induced Th2 and M2 polarization. In sequential co-infection, the final polarization of macrophage was dictated by the sequence of co-infection. However, all groups with M.tb infection showed the same degree of mycobacterial count in lung tissues and lung tissue histopathological changes. Conclusion: Sequential co-infection of H.pg and M.tb induces different T cell response which leads to different macrophage polarization in lung tissue. Helminth infection induced M2 lung macrophage polarization, but did not cause different mycobacterial count nor lung histopathological changes.

Original languageEnglish
Pages (from-to)340-349
Number of pages10
JournalIndian Journal of Tuberculosis
Volume68
Issue number3
DOIs
Publication statusPublished - Jul 2021

Keywords

  • Co-infection
  • Heligmosomoides polygyrus
  • Lung histopathology
  • Macrophage activity
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis

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